Научно-Исследовательский Институт Проблем Биологической Безопасности

LUMPY SKIN DISEASE

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28. Email: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call Kutumbetov Lespek Bekbolatovich, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Associate Professor, tel. +7 (701) -283-38-07

For consultation, call Orynbayev Mukhit Barmakovich, candidate of veterinary sciences, professor, tel. +7 (701) -345-51-77

Regarding the acquisition of the vaccine, Yershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Deputy Director General for Production Service, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

Illustrative photo: from open sources

 

Lumpy skin disease (nodular dermatitis, nodular exanthema, infectious nodular dermatitis) is a viral infectious disease in big cattle, accompanied by fever, edema of the subcutaneous connective tissue and organs, the formation of skin nodes, eye and mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts damage. Mortality with  in lumpy skin disease does not exceed 10%,  however, financial damage is great, it is manifested by a decrease in growth and milk yield, as well as the inability to use cow skins. The disease is common in areas with a warm climate. A man does not suffer from lumpy skin disease.

Reasons

Lumpy skin disease in cattle is caused by a group of pathogens that, by antigenic properties, is similar to sheep pox virus. Contagium is carried by blood-sucking flying insects, herons, and also excreted with saliva, sperm, milk, exfoliated particles of the skin of a sick animal.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Epizootology

5–100% of cattle become infected with cattle lumpy skin disease. During therapeutic and disinfection measures against cattle lumpy skin disease it is possible to save 99% of the animals. Recovered ruminants develop stable immunity. However, in farms affected by lumpy skin disease, the presence of antibodies to the pathogen is determined with the annual introduction of a diagnostic allergen. Young and high-breed animals are most susceptible to the disease. Where there are many flying bloodsucking arthropods, outbreaks of lumpy skin disease occur more often. The virus can be transmitted by birds.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Symptoms

There are acute, atypical and symptomless types of the disease.

Acute form

The preliminary period lasts 3-30 days. The development of lumpy skin disease and its characteristic signs are as follows:

  • Initially, the temperature of cows rises — 40 ° C.
  • Cows lose appetite.
  • Lachrymation appears.
  • Mucous fluid flows from the nose.
  • 48 hours after the onset of hyperthermia, dense oval numerous nodules with a diameter of up to 7 cm and a height of 5 mm are formed all over the body. In some cases, neoplasms are combined.
  • Swelling of the surrounding hypodermal fiber occurs.
  • A few hours pass, at the edges the exfoliation of the epidermis begins, in the center – tissue necrosis.
  • After 1-3 weeks, a section of the dead texture disappears.
  • The cavity is filled with granulations. New skin remains unpigmented, overgrown with hair.
  • With a complicated form of dermatitis, ulcerations form.
  • Mastitis develops. Milk acquires a thick consistency and pinkish color. The milking process is long, characterized by soreness. When heated, milk quickly acquires a gel-like consistency.
  • Lymph nodes enlarge, detected by palpation.
  • The complicated course of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
  • nodules cover the entire body;
  • mucous membranes suppurate, ulcerate;
  • erosion covers the eyelids, appear on the cornea, the cow goes blind;
  • thick saliva oozes from the mouth;
  • nasal discharge of the mucous consistency is fetid;
  • with the spread of edema and ulcers in the respiratory canals, the animal dies from suffocation.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Upon recovery, swelling subsides, nodules are reduced, hair falls out, the skin cracks, peels off with rags, slowly updating. Secondary infection of the affected areas is not excluded. Lumpy skin disease is complicated by bronchopneumonia, arthritis, impaired reproductive functions.

Atypical form

Registered with small calves. It is characterized by variable diarrhea and hyperthermia. Symptoms of dermatitis are absent.

Asymptomatic form

Cows do not get sick, but become virus carriers.

Diagnostics

The cause of lumpy skin disease is identified on the basis of the following data:

  • Epizootological situation.
  • Clinical symptoms.
  • Pathological changes. They are determined at autopsy and the detection of specific signs.
  • Laboratory research. Histological sections are examined, and changes characteristic of the disease are found. They put a bioassay.

Bioassay

The material is taken from the inflamed skin tubercle, grown on tissue culture (LT, LK, etc.). The resulting substance is administered to test animals. The diagnosis is considered confirmed if a result is obtained that matches the data in the table.

Annual blanket vaccination is the only way to prevent lumpy skin disease in cattle.

It is quite possible to cure animals affected by the virus of lumpy skin disease if effective drugs are used and disinfection measures are followed. As a prophylaxis of the disease, vaccination is recommended. The vaccine helps not only protect animals from the virus, but also resists its spread. It is necessary to vaccinate from lumpy skin disease the entire livestock of cattle, regardless of gender and age. The duration of immunity in this case reaches 12 months.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Prophylaxis

To prevent cattle lumpy skin disease, it is recommended to use the cattle lumpy skin disease vaccine from the Neethling-RIBSP strain. The vaccine is administered once at a dose of 2 cm3 subcutaneously in the middle third of the neck, regardless of the age of the animal.

In disadvantaged areas, the vaccine is used annually. Vaccination of livestock is carried out in the spring. Calves obtained from vaccinated animals are given a vaccine starting at 6 months of age. The calves obtained from unvaccinated animals, the vaccine is administered at any age.

The vaccine promotes the formation of active immunity against cattle ND, starting from 21 days after using the drug for at least 12 months after a single immunization. Pregnant cows are also immunized once.

The vaccine can cause a local reaction in some animals at the injection site, resulting in a slight swelling. In some animals, a short-term increase in body temperature to 39.5 ° C is possible within 1-2 days with a satisfactory general condition and preservation of appetite.

The meat of vaccinated animals, in the absence of any reactions, is used without restrictions. If there is a reaction at the injection site, the meat is allowed to be used no earlier than 14 days later. In other cases, you should be guided by the current rules of veterinary inspection of slaughtered animals and veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and meat products.

If ND has been diagnosed in the region, all individuals are subject to vaccination, regardless of previous immunizations. Cattle with signs of ND are isolated from staff and healthy animals.

Control measures

Due to the danger of lumpy skin disease, its control is carried out by the local veterinary service with the assistance of regional authorities. Organizational measures and restrictive actions are applied.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Organizational measures

In points threatened by infection with lumpy skin disease, the following activities are carried out:

  • Stock identification. All animals are equipped with tags.
  • Monitoring the regular processing of livestock farms with repellents.
  • Conducting blanket immunization with the cattle lumpy skin disease vaccine from the Neethling-RIBSP strain.
  • All movements of feed and livestock in threatened areas are carried out with the knowledge of the head of the regional veterinary service. If during a clinical examination there are signs of lumpy skin disease, it is imperative that the seller and the buyer conduct quarantine measures during the breeding sale.
  • Ensure round-the-clock operation of veterinary laboratories and state funding for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease.
  • Organize repellent treatment of animals during their movement.
  • Oblige livestock owners to assist veterinarians in conducting periodic screenings for viral dermatitis and treatments against it.
  • Bring the parameters of the keeping of animals in accordance with zoohygienic requirements, avoid dampness, in which blood-sucking insects actively develop.
  • Regularly disinfect and delouse rooms.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Restrictive measures

A livestock farm or locality where lumpy skin disease has been diagnosed is subject to quarantine, during which the following restrictions apply:

  • Clinically sick animals in previously successful territories, it is recommended to slaughter internal organs, as well as skins dispose.
  • Milk is allowed for removal after boiling or sterilization at 132 ° C.
  • Quarantine is removed one month after the last sick animal has recovered, however, livestock export is prohibited throughout the year, with the exception of sending to slaughter, which is allowed during the period of termination of the activity of insects.
  • The export of unauthorized livestock products from disadvantaged areas is detected and suppressed in accordance with applicable law.

Conclusion

Control of cattle lumpy skin disease is to conduct veterinary and zoohygienic measures, explanatory work among cattle breeders, as well as the conscientiousness of animal owners.

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28. Email: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call Kutumbetov Lespek Bekbolatovich, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Associate Professor, tel. +7 (701) -283-38-07

For consultation, call Orynbayev Mukhit Barmakovich, candidate of veterinary sciences, professor, tel. +7 (701) -345-51-77

Regarding the acquisition of the vaccine, Yershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Deputy Director General for Production Service, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83