Научно-Исследовательский Институт Проблем Биологической Безопасности

POLYPHAGE – A MODERN PREPARATION FOR DISINFECTION

Long-term use of antibiotics for the treatment of various diseases has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistance of pathogen strains.

The development of a new antibiotic preparation, its clinical trials and registration take many years and cost hundred millions US dollars. The use of antibiotics in clinical practice, in addition to the well-known side effects, entails, again, the emergence of forms of bacteria resistant to newly synthesized drugs.

In the current situation, bacteriophages (phages), discovered almost a century ago, can provide a worthy alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of many diseases of bacterial origin.

Bacteriophages are viruses that selectively infect bacterial cells. The antibacterial effect of bacteriophage preparations is due to the introduction of the phage genome into the bacterial cell, followed by its reproduction and lysis of the infected cell. Released into the external environment as a result of lysis, bacteriophages re-infect and lyse other bacterial cells, acting until the complete destruction of pathogenic bacteria in the focus of inflammation.

Bacteriophages are unique microorganisms based on which a special group of therapeutic and prophylactic drugs has been created in terms of their properties and characteristics.

In connection with the above, RSE “RIBSP” SC MES RK offers a developed new disinfectant “Полифаг (Polyphage)”, intended for disinfection of veterinary and sanitary supervision facilities, veterinary and livestock, poultry, fish, food production and transport, technological equipment, as well as disadvantaged points, threatened areas, slaughterhouses, food production associated with the processing of meat, milk, egg raw materials obtained from conditionally disadvantaged animals with brucellosis, pseudotuberculosis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, COLIBACTERIOSIS, diarrheal diseases of young animals caused by conditionally pathogenic microflora (proteus, klebsiella, pseudomonosis, enterococci, Yersinia and other infections that belong to the first group by resistance.

The drug contains various bacteriophages against bacteria: Brucella abortus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerichia Coli, Salmonella enteretidis, Sallmonella typhimurium, Sallmonella infantis, Shigella sonne, Shigella flexneri.

The main active substance of the disinfectant “Полифаг” for disinfection is the consortium of bacteriophages Полифаг/НИИПББ/ BV-0001.

Advantages/useful properties of ” Polyphage»:

– broad spectrum of action and activity against bacteria;

– cost-effectiveness of solutions;

– easy to use and store;

– have a low level of toxicity;

– do not spoil the taste of products;

– do not damage the surface and materials;

– have additional deodorizing and washing properties.

The selling price is 3000 tenge per 1 liter.

 

For advice, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28, e-mail: ribsp@biosafety.kz

 

For advice and purchase, call the head of the laboratory, candidate of veterinary sciences Yespembetov Bolat Amanbaevich, tel.+7(775)-093-78-10

 

CAMELPOX

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Camel pox is a contagious viral disease characterized by fever, swelling of the head and the appearance of a nodular-pustular rash on the skin and mucous membranes of sick animals, abortions in she-camels and the death of colts. Camels of all ages are susceptible to smallpox, but young animals are more often and more seriously ill. In pregnant camels, smallpox can cause abortions.

According to the literature, significant smallpox outbreaks were observed in the Ural (in 1930, 1942-1943) and Guryev (in 1965-1969) regions of Kazakhstan. The last outbreak of camel pox in Kazakhstan was observed in 1996 in three districts of the Mangistau region. At the same time, only 830 out of 8 thousand camels in the Mangistau region were ill with smallpox, of which 43 died.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Epizootology. According to Bera et al. in 2009, an outbreak of camel pox in Bikaner province, in Rajasthan district (India), sickened 3 people caring for animals. The main sources of the smallpox virus in camels are sick or ill camels. Infected animals disperse the virus in the external environment with the rejected epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes containing the virus. The virus is also released into the external environment with aborted fetuses. The smallpox pathogen can be spread mechanically by domestic and wild animals that are not susceptible to smallpox.

During the camelpox epizootic, young animals are particularly ill. In the period between epizootics in stationary areas with smallpox, the disease occurs among camels in the form of enzooties and sporadic cases that occur more or less regularly every 3-6 years, mainly among animals aged 2-4 years. In such cases, animals suffer is relatively easy, especially in the warmer time of the year. In cold weather, smallpox is more severe, long-lasting, and is accompanied by complications, especially in young animals.

Method of infection and mechanism of transmission of the pathogen. In natural conditions, healthy camels are infected by contact with sick animals in a virus-contaminated area through infected water, feed, premises and care items, as well as aerogenically by spraying virus-containing effusions with sick animals. More often, camels become infected when the virus enters the body through the skin and mucous membranes, especially when their integrity is violated or when avitaminosis A occurs.

Course and clinical manifestation of smallpox symptoms in camels. The incubation period, depending on the age of camels, the properties of the virus and the ways it enters the body, ranges from 3 to 15 days: in young animals 4-7, in adults 6-15 days. Colts brooded from non-immune she-camels may become ill 2-5 days after birth.

The course of smallpox in camels, depending on their age, is also different: in young animals, especially in a newborn, it is often acute (up to 9 days); in adults, it is subacute and chronic, sometimes latent, more often in pregnant camels. The most characteristic form of smallpox in camels is cutaneous with a subacute course of the disease.

In the subacute course of the disease, a transparent and later a cloudy grayish-dirty color mucus is released from the mouth and nose. Animals shake their heads, sniff and snort, throwing out together with the virus-containing mucus and the virus-affected epithelium. Soon, puffiness forms in the area of the lips, nostrils, and eyelids, sometimes spreading to the infra-temporal area, the neck, and even the sub-chest area. The mandibular lymph nodes and lower neck lymph nodes are enlarged. The animals ‘ appetite decreases, they lie down more often and for longer than usual, and with great difficulty they get up. By this time, reddish-gray spots appear on the skin of the lips, nose and eyelids, on the mucous membrane of the mouth and nose; under them, dense nodules are formed, which, increasing, turn into gray papules, and then into pustules with the size of a pea and a bean with a sinking center and a roller-like thickening at the edges.

Pockpits in sick camels often appear first on the head. At the age from one to four years, camels are usually easily ill. Lesions are localized on the scalp, mainly in the area of the lips and nose. In she-camels, the udder is often affected. A few days after breaking the primary pustules in the head area, smallpox lesions are formed on the skin and other short-haired areas of the body (in the areas of the underbelly, armpits, perineum and scrotum, the inner part of the forearm and thigh), and in she-camels also on the vaginal mucosa. At this time, body temperature of camels usually increase again, sometimes up to 41.5 °C, and she-camels in the last month of pregnancy bring premature and underdeveloped colts, which, as a rule, soon die.

     

Illustrative photo: from open sources

In some animals, the cornea of the eyes becomes cloudy (a cataract), which causes temporary blindness in one eye for 5-10 days, and in colts, more often in both eyes. Colts that get sick soon after birth have diarrhea. In this case, they die within 3-9 days after the disease.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

The diagnosis of smallpox in camels is based on epizootological data, characteristic symptoms of the disease, pathoanatomic changes, positive results of microscopy (when processing smears and fresh papules using the Morozov silvering method) or electron microscopy and laboratory tests: bioprobes, RDP, ELISA and PCR.

Smallpox in camels must be differentiated from necrobacillosis by microscopic examination of material taken from sick and fallen camels, as well as by experimental infection of white mice susceptible to necrobacillosis. To exclude foot-and-mouth disease, Guinea pigs are infected in the plantar surface of the skin of the paws. Fungal lesions and scabies are excluded by microscopic examination of scrapes taken from the affected areas of the skin. In cases of abortions, miscarriages, and premature foetuses (for exclusion of brucellosis), the blood serum of sick she-camels is tested for brucellosis (RA, RSC, and bacteriological). It is also necessary to exclude the smallpox-like disease Auyzdyk, which is accompanied by a mass disease of young camels, characterized by lesions in the area of the head (lips, nose), by electron microscopy.

Prophylaxis. The only method  of protesction in the camel pox is vaccination. Live and inactivated vaccines have been developed worldwide to prevent smallpox in camels. Reports of the existence of a smallpox vaccine for camels first appeared in the Soviet Union.

According to the International epizootic Bureau (OIE, 2008), attenuated and inactivated vaccines are commercially available. Vaccination with live attenuated vaccine provides protection for more than 12 months and with inactivated vaccine for up to 12 months with revaccination.

Camelpox vaccine was also developed at the RSE “Research Institute for biological safety problems”, which was tested in the Mangystau region.

 

General anti-epizootic measures. In our republic the anti-epizootic measures are carried out in accordance with the veterinary rules “Sanitary-epidemiological and veterinary-sanitary Rules for the prevention and control of infectious diseases common to animals and humans”.

Conclusion. Control of camel pox consists in carrying out veterinary and sanitary measures, explanatory works on compliance with the rules for keeping livestock, and on the procedure for performing their duties provided for by veterinary legislation.

 

For consultation, call RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28,
e-mail:
ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call Mambetaliyev Muratbay Aldibayevich, candidate of veterinary sciences, associate professor, tel.+7(775)-772-03-77

For consultation, call Zhugunissov Kuandyk Dauletbaevich, candidate of biological sciences, tel.+7(702)-186-42-73

Regarding the acquisition of the vaccine, call Yershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Head of the Quality Department, tel.+7(778)-881-46-83

 

Insidiuous coronavirus 2019-nCoV

At the end of 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin was noted in the Chinese city of Wuhan, Hubei Province. Experts and scientists found that the causative agent of the disease was a new type of coronavirus.

Coronaviruses – a family of 40 species of viruses in January 2020, combined into 2 subfamilies that infect humans, cats, birds, dogs, cattle, pigs and hares. The new coronavirus is a type of SARS virus that appeared in China in 2002-2003 and caused a pandemic that killed about 800 people in the world. Coronaviruses in humans can cause illnesses, from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

(Illustrative photo from open sources)

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by the new coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which was first diagnosed in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and then spread to 26 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe, leading to the death of sick people. This virus is different from other known coronaviruses, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). According to the results of official data published in the media, based on an analysis of information over the past week, and also taking into account official reports and the position of the World Health Organization, we can talk about the increased risk of infection. As already known, 15 countries outside mainland China (Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, USA, Canada, Vietnam, Singapore, Nepal, France, Australia, Malaysia and Germany) confirmed the occurrence of infection in their countries.

 

(Illustrative photo from open sources)

Despite a rather short period of time, scientists from China have decrypted the complete genome profile, which is located in the international GenBank database, which simplifies the work of scientists in other countries, since based on these data it is possible to develop a diagnostic test system based on PCR in a short time.

Currently, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan has developed an algorithm for action in case of infection, as well as preventive measures to prevent the disease. Throughout the country, explanatory work is underway to prevent infection of the country’s population with the modern insidious virus.

(Illustrative photo from open sources)

In order to study one of the types of coronavirus in the period from 2016 to 2018, the International Research Project on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was carried out at the Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Within the framework of this project, the distribution of coronavirus among camels and bats was monitored in several regions of the republic. More than 8,200 serum samples and about 2,500 samples of nasal swabs from camels, as well as 200 samples from bats for the presence of the genome of the MERS-CoV virus were studied by PCR.

According to the research results, articles were published, including in the international rating journal, and the results were reported in two international conferences.

RSE Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems SC MES RK is one of the leading research centers with over 60 years of history. Material and technical equipment, the availability of modern scientific laboratories with the 2nd and 3rd levels of biological safety (BSL-2, BSL-3), as well as highly qualified personnel are able to conduct research at an advanced level not inferior to foreign developments.

The Institute has one of the most powerful databases of the genetic library of viruses, which stores the genetic data of viruses and bacteria decrypted by our scientists.

Over the past 25 years, the Institute conducted scientific research on the study of especially dangerous diseases, development of diagnostic (test systems for PCR and ELISA studies, microchips, etc.) and prevention tools (vaccines against pandemic and seasonal flu, brucellosis, tuberculosis, smallpox, foot and mouth disease, lumpy skin disease, etc.), more than 60 items in total.

The technologies for producing recombinant strains based on genetic engineering have been mastered. New strains and vaccines against influenza, brucellosis, tuberculosis, smallpox, lumpy skin disease and many others have been obtained.

That is, we are actively using modern technology, including to create new generations of diagnostic kits and vaccines.

In case of outbreaks of especially dangerous and dangerous infections, the most effective way to hold the disease down is vaccination. Using data on the structure of the genome, it is possible to obtain genetically engineered, recombinant strains, candidates for vaccine development. In this case, the donor (carrier) can be obtained previously at the Institute tested recombinant viruses that are safe for humans and animals.

Taking into account the high relevance of the coronavirus outbreak in China, the scientists of our Institute have started to develop diagnostic tools and are preparing a test system for PCR diagnostics. With funding, we can complete the development of the test system within 10-15 days.

Our experience of previous years in developing vaccines against particularly dangerous infections allows us to say with great confidence that with funding, we are ready to start immediately and get a candidate strain of the virus as soon as possible, and the development of a vaccine, accordingly, may take some time. In addition, it is also necessary to take into account the conduct of clinical trials of the vaccine, which also requires time.

TEST SYSTEM FOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF LUMPY SKIN DISEASE OF CATTLE WITH POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) METHOD

Preparation of a domestic test system for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease of cattle is an urgent task and arises from the need for early diagnosis of the disease.

Rapid and precise diagnosis using the PCR method, as well as the rapid implementation of control measures are very important for the timely prophylaxis and prevention of the spread of lumpy skin disease of cattle in the country.

Despite the urgency of the problem, currently in the Republic there are practically no domestic and commercial kits for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease virus based on PCR. As a result, this development can be a platform for creating high-performance systems.

Diagnosis of lumpy skin disease with a highly sensitive and specific test system based on PCR allows  to accurately and very quickly (5-6 hours) detect DNA of the virus of lumpy skin disease from pathological material. In this case, a simultaneous study of a large number of samples is possible.

The test system is effective for use in laboratory and research institutions involved in the diagnosis of cattle lumpy skin disease virus.

The main advantages of the PCR test system are high specificity, high sensitivity, and the speed of obtaining the results of the study using PCR. This test system for price and quality is not inferior to foreign counterparts.

Project manager Sultankulova K.T. and responsible executors of the project Shorayeva K.A., Almezhanova M.D. conducted tests of the test system on the basis of the RSE “National Veterinary Reference Center of the Committee for Veterinary Control and Supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, and received a registration certificate.

RABIES

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” of SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28.

E-mail: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call: Bulatov Yerbol Akenovich, head of the laboratory “Technology of cultivation of microorganisms”, candidate of veterinary sciences, tel. +7 (701) -449-55-52

Concerning the acquisition of the vaccine: Ershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Head of the Quality Department, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

Carnivorous animal  can be a source of rabies disease

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Rabies (Rabies, hydrophobia Lyssa,) – a viral disease characterized by severe damage to the peripheral nervous system, signs of disseminated encephalomyelitis. A disease will inevitably be fatal. It refers to natural focal, periodic viral diseases. Infection affects all types of warm-blooded, domestic, farm animals, as well as most species of birds and humans. Young animals are more susceptible to the virus than old ones. Mortality in rabies is 100%. The economic damage is great, which consists of losses resulting from the death of animals, the costs of quarantine and preventive measures, the capture of stray dogs and cats, the regulation of the number of wild predators, as well as conducting diagnostic tests. The maximum increase in incidence in the fall and in the winter-spring period. Three-four-year cyclicity of rabies was established, which is associated with the dynamics of the abundance of main reservoirs.

Domestic carnivores can also be a source of rabies disease.

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Epizootology. Main epizootologic data of rabies:

Sources and reservoirs of the causative agent of infection. The reservoir and the main sources of the causative agent of rabies are wild predators, dogs and cats, and in some countries of the world – bats. Given the nature of the reservoir of the pathogen, epizootics are distinguished as of the natural type when wild carnivores (fox, raccoon dog, arctic fox, wolf, corsac, jackal) spread the disease, and urban type when stray dogs and cats are the source of the virus and the spread of the disease.

The method of infection and the mechanism of pathogen transmission. Infection of animals and humans occurs through direct contact with sources of the causative agent of rabies as a result of a bite or saliva of damaged skin or mucous membranes. Infection with rabies is possible through the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, in alimentary and aerogenic, as well as transmissible ways.

The intensity of the manifestation of the epizootic process. With a high abundance of foxes, corsacs, raccoon dogs, wolves, jackals, arctic foxes, the disease spreads rapidly, with an average abundance rabies manifests itself only in rare cases. With a low population density of wild carnivorous epizootics remisses.

The course and clinical manifestation of rabies symptoms. The incubation period varies from several days to 1 year and averages 3-6 weeks. Its duration depends on the type, age, resistance of the animal, the amount of virus that has penetrated and its virulence, the location and the nature of the wound. The closer the wound to the brain, the faster the rabies clinic appears.

The disease is more acute. The clinical picture is similar in animals of all species, but better studied in dogs. Rabies in them usually manifests itself in two forms: furious and sullen. The recurrent and abortive course of the disease is recorded.

In furious rabies, three stages are distinguished: prodromal, excitative, and paralytic.

The prodromal period (stage of signs and symptoms) lasts from 12 hours to 3 days. This period begins with a slight change in behavior. Sick animals become apathetic, boring, avoid people, try to hide in a dark place, reluctantly go to the call of the owner. In other cases, the dog becomes affectionate to the owner and acquaintances, trying to lick his hands and face. Then anxiety and excitability gradually increase. The animal often lays down and jumps up, barks for no reason, there is an increased reflex excitability (to light, noise, rustling, touch, etc.), shortness of breath appears, the pupils are dilated. Sometimes a severe itching occurs at the site of the bite, the animal licks, combs, and nibbles it. With the progression of the disease, a perverted appetite often appears. The dog eats inedible objects (stones, glass, wood, earth, its own feces, etc.). During this period, paresis of the muscles of the pharynx develops. Difficult swallowing (it seems that the dog choked on something), salivation, hoarse and abrupt barking, hesitant gait, sometimes squint are noted.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The second – excitative period – lasts 3-4 days and is characterized by an increase in the symptoms described above. Aggressiveness builds up, a dog for no reason can bite another animal or person, even its owner, gnaws on iron, sticks, earth, often breaking teeth, and sometimes the lower jaw. In sick dogs, the desire to break the chain and run away intensifies, a rabid dog runs tens of kilometers per day, bites and infects other dogs and people along the way. It is characteristic that the dog runs silently to animals and people and bites them. Attacks of violence lasting several hours are replaced by periods of oppression. Paralysis of individual muscle groups gradually develops. The change in the dog’s voice is especially noticeable due to paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. Lai sounds hoarse, resembling a howl. This symptom has diagnostic value. The lower jaw is completely paralyzed, it sags. The oral cavity is open all the time, the tongue half falls out, there is abundant salivation. At the same time, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and muscles of the tongue occurs, as a result of which the animals cannot eat food. Strabismus appears.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The third – paralytic period – lasts 1-4 days. In addition to paralysis of the lower jaw, the hind limbs, the muscles of the tail, bladder and rectum, then the muscles of the trunk and forelimbs are paralyzed. The body temperature in the stage of excitation rises to 40-41 °C, and in the paralytic – decreases below normal. In the blood, polymorphic nuclear leukocytosis is noted, the number of leukocytes is reduced, the sugar content in urine is increased to 3%. The total duration of the disease is 8-10 days, but often death can occur in 3-4 days.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With a sullen (paralytic) form of rabies (most often observed when dogs are infected from foxes), excitation is slight or not expressed at all. The animal is not aggressive, the appetite is preserved, there may be difficulty swallowing, similar to the condition when animals choke on the bone. There is paralysis of the pharynx, lower jaw, hind limbs. An unstable gait can be observed in a sick dog, sometimes with an atypical form the animal eats completely inedible objects, salivation develops. The disease lasts 2-4 days.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The recurrent form of rabies is characterized by complete recovery, which after two to three weeks is again replaced by all the symptoms of the disease.

The abortive form of rabies ends with the recovery of the animal in the second stage of the disease. This form of rabies is very rare and is still being studied by many researchers.

The atypical form of rabies has no stage of excitation. Depletion and muscle atrophy are noted. There have been reported cases of rabies, which occurred only in cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis: vomiting, semi-liquid feces containing blood-mucous masses.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With rabies in cats, the clinical signs are basically the same as in dogs, the disease proceeds mainly in a furious form. Often, an infected animal tries to hide in a quiet, dark place. Sick cats are very aggressive towards humans and dogs. They inflict deep damage by sticking their claws, trying to bite in the face. Their voice is changing. In the stage of excitement, cats tend, like dogs, to run away from home. In the future, paralysis of the pharynx and limbs develops. Death occurs 2-5 days after the manifestation of clinical signs. With paralytic rabies, aggressiveness is weak.

Clinical presentation of rabid cats

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With cattle rabies, the incubation period is more than 2 months, usually from 15 to 24 days. In some cases, it may take 1-3 years from the moment of the bite until the first signs of the disease appear. Rabies occurs mainly in two forms: furious and sullen.

With a furious form, the disease begins with excitement. The animal often lies down, jumps up, lashes its tail, stomps, rushes to the wall, strikes with horns. Aggressiveness is especially pronounced towards dogs and cats. Salivation, sweating, frequent urges to urination and defecation, rut are noted. After 2-3 days, paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx (inability to swallow), lower jaw (salivation), hind and forelimbs develop. Death occurs on the 3rd-6th day of illness,.

With a sullen form, signs of excitement are weak or absent. Depression is observed, cows go off feed. Cows ablactate and stop to ruminate. Then the paralysis of the larynx, pharynx, lower jaw (hoarse mooing, salivation, inability to swallow), and then the hind and front limbs appears. Death occurs on the 2nd-4th day.

Rabid cattle

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

In sheep and goats, the symptoms are the same as in cattle: aggressiveness, especially to dogs, increased sexual arousal. Paralysis quickly develops, and on the 3-5th day the animals die. With a paralytic form of rabies, excitement and aggressiveness are not noted.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  овец и коз

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Rabies in horses is initially manifested by anxiety, shyness, excitability. Itching is often possible at the site of the bite. Aggression to animals, and sometimes to people. During the period of excitement, horses rush to the wall, break their heads, gnaw at feeding troughs, doors, sometimes, on the contrary, fall into a state of depression, resting their head against the wall. Cramps in the muscles of the lips, cheeks, neck, and chest are noted. With the further progress of the disease, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and then the limbs develop. The animal dies on the 3-4th day of illness. But sometimes a fatal outcome occurs within 1 day. With a paralytic form of rabies, the stage of excitation does not occur.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  horses

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Rabies in pigs is often acute and furious. Pigs rush about in pens, go off feed, gnaw feeders, partitions, the bite site. Strong salivation. Aggression is shown to other animals and people. Sows attack their own piglets. Soon paralysis develops, and 1-2 days after their appearance, the animals die. The duration of the disease is not more than 6 days.

In the paralytic form of rabies (rarely recorded), depression, going off feed and water, slight salivation, constipation, rapidly progressing paralysis are noted. Animals die 5 … 6 days after the manifestation of signs of the disease.

Rabid pigs

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Camels rabies manifests itself in a sullen or furious form, and death occurs 4-5 days after the clinical manifestation. The incubation period for rabies of camels is up to 1.5 months.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  camels

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Diagnostics. The most accurate diagnostic results are achieved by examining several parts of the brain at once: the brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and horn of Ammon. The diagnosis of rabies based on the clinical picture is not possible, as the symptoms are similar to some other diseases. Diagnostics using histological changes (detection of Negri bodies), as well as DPR (diffuse precipitation reaction) is not currently used due to low sensitivity. Moreover, histological examination is not recommended for use by the OIE diagnostic and vaccine guidelines. IHCM (immunohistochemical method) is usually not used in diagnostics due to the complexity and duration of the reaction. In the diagnosis of rabies in tissue samples, RV proteins or fragments of its genome are detected. For this, RIF, virus isolation in animals (on mice) and in cell cultures, ELISA, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and many others are used..

Specific prevention of agricultural, domestic animals. Vaccination of animals is one of the main effective ways to prevent rabies. For vaccination of farm and domestic animals, it is recommended to use the animal rabies inactivated vaccine from the strain “VRC-RZ2” of fixed rabies virus (developer – RIBSP). The vaccine is intended for prophylactic and compulsory immunization against rabies in cattle and small cattle, horses, camels, pigs, dogs and cats.

ANIMAL RABIES INACTIVATED VACCINE (DEVELOPER – RIBSP)

During prophylactic immunization of farm animals, the vaccine is administered subcutaneously in the middle third of the neck or croup (for pigs, intramuscularly behind the ear). Preventive immunization of dogs, cats and other carnivores is carried out subcutaneously or intramuscularly from two months of age. Preventive immunization is carried out once with subsequent revaccination in a year. For animals previously vaccinated against rabies, the vaccine is administered subcutaneously once every two years.

Preventive immunization of animals is carried out in the doses indicated in the table.

Animal species Age Dose, ml
Horses and camels Over 3 years old

from 3 months to 3 years

10,0

5,0

Cattle Over 2 years old

from 3 months to 2 years

8,0

5,0

Sheep and goats Over 1 year old

from 3 months to 1 year

4,0

2,0

Pigs Over 1 year old

from 4 months to 1 year

5,0

3,0

Big dogs (over 10 kg) Over 1 year old

2-12 months.

1,0

0,5

Little dogs (up to 10 kg) Over 1 year old

6-12 months.

2-6 months.

0,5

0,3

0,2

Cats Over 1 year old

2-12 months.

0,5

0,3

The vaccine promotes the formation of active immunity against rabies, starting from 10-15 days after the use of the preparation for at least 12 months after a single immunization.

The vaccine can cause a local reaction in some animals at the injection site, which manifests itself in the form of a small swelling, which spontaneously resolves within 7-10 days.

The meat and milk from vaccinated farm animals is used without restrictions, regardless of the timing of the vaccine.

In case of emergency immunization, the vaccine is used no later than 3 days after being bitten by animals suspected of being infected with rabies. For severe bites – no later than 24 hours. The vaccine is administered in 1.5-fold prophylactic doses with revaccination in a prophylactic dose 7-10 days after the first vaccination.

 

Rabies treatment. There are no effective therapies. Ill animals are immediately isolated and slaughtered, as keeping animals longer can cause the infection of humans.

General antiepizootic measures. Anti-epizootic measures in the Republic of Kazakhstan are carried out in accordance with the veterinary rules “Sanitary-epidemiological and veterinary-sanitary rules for the prevention and control of infectious diseases common to animals and humans (rabies)”.

Conclusion

The control of rabies in animals consists of timely veterinary and sanitary measures, explanatory work on compliance with livestock rules and the procedure for the performance of their duties provided for by the veterinary legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

 

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” of SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28.

E-mail: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call: Bulatov Yerbol Akenovich, head of the laboratory “Technology of cultivation of microorganisms”, candidate of veterinary sciences, tel. +7 (701) -449-55-52

Concerning the acquisition of the vaccine: Ershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Head of the Quality Department, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

AUGUST FORUM OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

From August 15 to 16, 2019, the Republican Forum of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Global Values and Quality of Kazakhstan’s Education and Science” was held in Nur-Sultan.

On the first day of the forum, prominent scientists of the Republic of Kazakhstan participated in the meeting, and Fatima Nadyrovna Zhakypova, Vice Minister of Education and Science, also participated.

The Vice Minister’s report noted that in 2019, at the meetings of the High Scientific and Technical Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan, questions regarding the priority areas for the development of science at the current stage, as well as further financing of science and the draft scientific and technical program of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2020-2022 were discussed. According to the decisions of HSTC, the volume of financing of grant projects and programs for 2020-2022 will increase far-forth.

Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev instructed the government to take urgent measures to address problems in the education system. The head of state instructed the Ministry of Education and Science to review the cost of educational grants and the standards for universities.

Kassym-Zhomart Tokaev raised the problem of the workload of teachers. He applied to the authorities and demanded not to burden teachers with extra work.

Children in Kazakhstan need to instill an “environmentally friendly” consciousness, cultivate a culture of household cleanliness and hygiene in every possible way, and teach them to understand the crucial importance of protecting nature, Tokayev said.

Kasym-Zhomart Tokaev noted that “Suicides in children and adolescents are a tragedy for all of us. We all need to seriously think about why children take such a step. The formation of solid attitudes is, in fact, a basic criterion for the quality of the educational process”.

The President instructed to ensure a thoughtful transition to a 12-year model as part of the implementation of the new State program for the development of education and science until 2025.

The President noted that “Teachers’ salaries remain one of the lowest, accounting for 65% of the average salary in the economy.” He instructed the government to double teachers’ salaries over four years, and also consider increasing the period of leave for all teachers to 56 days, a supplement for a master’s degree, and so on.

The President instructed the Ministry of Education and Science to develop and launch special programs to overcome the academic gap of children from low-income families or from schools working in difficult social conditions and showing poor results.

At the end of his report, the President presented state awards to teachers: the Order “Qurmet” and the medals “Eren enbegi ushin”, “Shapagat”, as well as letters of thanks from the President of Kazakhstan and the lapel badges “Ybyray Altynsarin” and “Honorary Worker of Education”.

Then, the Minister of Education and Science of Kazakhstan, Askhat Aymagambetov, made a report.

Askhat Aymagambetov announced the return of the primer book to the schools of the republic until 2021. A primer, written and published by Akhmet Baitursynov in 1912 in Orenburg, will return to schools. Also, the head of the ministry instructed to reduce the number of paid contests. According to the minister, the transition to the Latin alphabet will be carried out gradually in accordance with the schedule.

In 2019, the Ministry will implement the “Easy Portfolio” project. Parents have been given a choice: pupils can leave paper textbooks at school, and use electronic books at home.

The Minister of Education and Science in his report drew the attention of the participants of the August conference to the fact that the current rules for organizing school meals have corruption risks, so they will be changed.

To protect the rights of children, the ministry plans to create non-state adoption agencies, whose functions will include training of potential adoptive parents.

In Kazakhstan, the system of certification of teachers will be changed. According to the head of the ministry, more than 120 thousand teachers have managed to achieve higher wages through certification.

The professional growth of teachers and the management staff of pre-school and secondary education organizations will be determined through certification through passing the national qualification test. It will be fully automated.

The Minister of Education and Science announced the introduction of a five-day work week for school teachers.

The head of the ministry stated the need to improve the status of college teachers. A new certification system for college teachers will be introduced with an additional charge for the qualification category through the testing system.

According to the minister’s reports, a unified national testing in the future will be available in electronic format.

In addition, the minister said that the grants will go with the student on the basis of a voucher. With this voucher, he will be able to pay exclusively for his studies at the university. In addition, the student will be given the right to transfer to another university with his grant on a co-payment basis. Also, universities are given the right to choose students.

The size of the state educational grant has not increased since 2012. Therefore, a phased increase in the size of the state grant is necessary. This will allow universities to significantly increase the salaries of teachers, workers and improve infrastructure.

In order to improve the quality of teacher education, the ministry will pilotly introduce a national qualified test by graduates of pedagogical specialties on a voluntary basis. From 2021, this procedure will become mandatory.

The Minister of Education and Science of Kazakhstan congratulated teachers on the upcoming new school year.

Translated from Russian

AMAZING JOURNEY TO TANGBALY

Leader of the Nation N.A. Nazarbayev in his message to the people “Growth in the welfare of Kazakhstanis: improving incomes and quality of life”  marked 2019 the Year of Youth in the country.

On the initiative of the chairman of the primary party organization “Gvardiysk” of the party “Nur Otan” Kassenov Marhabat Melisbekovich, with the support of the trade union committee of the institute and the Council of young scientists, as well as in the framework of “Zhastar zhyly”, as well as articles of the Head of state “Rukhani zhangyru (Spiritual modernization)” and “Uly dalanyn 7 qyry (7 facets of the Great Steppe)”, in order to patriotically educate the youth of the Research Institute of Biosafety Problems, to involve them in the socio-cultural environment, the event “Oz taryhyngdy tanyp bіl (Know your history)” was carried out. During the event, an excursion was organized to the State Historical, Cultural and Natural Reserve-Museum “Tangbaly”, located in the Zhambyl district of Almaty region.

Petroglyphs minted and engraved on stones in the Tangbaly tract near the village of Karabastau, bordering the plain, which is a desert and semi-desert zone in the west of the Zhambyl region, are now becoming a source of tourism and are offered to the attention of foreign tourists as a rich heritage of our people and the pride of our country.

In 2005, at UNESCO Headquarters, UNESCO Director-General Konchiro Matsura handed the director of the reserve museum a certificate on inclusion of the Kazakhstan nomination “Rock paintings with the archaeological landscape “Tangbaly”” in the UNESCO World Heritage List, thereby noting the high attention to the importance and significance of this monument. On the territory of the tract “Tangbaly” there are more than a hundred monuments – settlements, burial grounds, ancient rock art, rock paintings and places of worship (places of sacrifice) of different times – the Bronze Age, starting from the middle of the XIV – XIII centuries BCE until the XIX-XX centuries. Tangbaly is an archaeological complex showing the history of the ancient and current peoples of our country.

According to archaeologists, many cave paintings in Tangbaly can be called the unique cave art of Central Asia in the Bronze Age. Also, historical sites confirm that one of the branches of the ancient Silk Road was located here.

The trip was a very useful event held to revive the interest of young people in their native land and its history. Young scientists expressed their opinion about the museum, that it aroused their special interest and desire to learn the secrets of their native land and that they received a great impression from the trip.

PERSONNEL OF RIBSP DISCUSSED THE LETTER OF THE HEAD OF STATE KASYM-JOMART TOKAYEV TO THE PEOPLE OF KAZAKHSTAN

September 4, 2019, collective of the Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems have discussed the Letter of the Head of State Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev to the people of Kazakhstan.

Chairman of the primary party organization “Nur Otan”, candidate of veterinary science Kassenov M.M. noted that the Letter of the President of the country to the people of Kazakhstan is an important event for every resident of the republic. Everyone finds in it the main direction for himself. The Letter to the people sets out a vision for the further development of the country and society, outlines the most important strategic tasks aimed at improving the quality of life of Kazakhstanis.

As noted in the discussion, 2020 was declared the “Year of the Volunteer”, which will allow “to expand the participation of citizens, especially youth, students and students in volunteer activities, to instill in them the skills of an active life position”.

In conclusion, the RIBSP  personnel supported the new initiatives and tasks that the Head of State outlined in his Letter and will create all the conditions for their successful implementation.