Научно-Исследовательский Институт Проблем Биологической Безопасности

TEST SYSTEM FOR LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF LUMPY SKIN DISEASE OF CATTLE WITH POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) METHOD

Preparation of a domestic test system for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease of cattle is an urgent task and arises from the need for early diagnosis of the disease.

Rapid and precise diagnosis using the PCR method, as well as the rapid implementation of control measures are very important for the timely prophylaxis and prevention of the spread of lumpy skin disease of cattle in the country.

Despite the urgency of the problem, currently in the Republic there are practically no domestic and commercial kits for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease virus based on PCR. As a result, this development can be a platform for creating high-performance systems.

Diagnosis of lumpy skin disease with a highly sensitive and specific test system based on PCR allows  to accurately and very quickly (5-6 hours) detect DNA of the virus of lumpy skin disease from pathological material. In this case, a simultaneous study of a large number of samples is possible.

The test system is effective for use in laboratory and research institutions involved in the diagnosis of cattle lumpy skin disease virus.

The main advantages of the PCR test system are high specificity, high sensitivity, and the speed of obtaining the results of the study using PCR. This test system for price and quality is not inferior to foreign counterparts.

Project manager Sultankulova K.T. and responsible executors of the project Shorayeva K.A., Almezhanova M.D. conducted tests of the test system on the basis of the RSE “National Veterinary Reference Center of the Committee for Veterinary Control and Supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, and received a registration certificate.

RABIES

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” of SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28.

E-mail: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call: Bulatov Yerbol Akenovich, head of the laboratory “Technology of cultivation of microorganisms”, candidate of veterinary sciences, tel. +7 (701) -449-55-52

Concerning the acquisition of the vaccine: Ershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Head of the Quality Department, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

Carnivorous animal  can be a source of rabies disease

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Rabies (Rabies, hydrophobia Lyssa,) – a viral disease characterized by severe damage to the peripheral nervous system, signs of disseminated encephalomyelitis. A disease will inevitably be fatal. It refers to natural focal, periodic viral diseases. Infection affects all types of warm-blooded, domestic, farm animals, as well as most species of birds and humans. Young animals are more susceptible to the virus than old ones. Mortality in rabies is 100%. The economic damage is great, which consists of losses resulting from the death of animals, the costs of quarantine and preventive measures, the capture of stray dogs and cats, the regulation of the number of wild predators, as well as conducting diagnostic tests. The maximum increase in incidence in the fall and in the winter-spring period. Three-four-year cyclicity of rabies was established, which is associated with the dynamics of the abundance of main reservoirs.

Domestic carnivores can also be a source of rabies disease.

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Epizootology. Main epizootologic data of rabies:

Sources and reservoirs of the causative agent of infection. The reservoir and the main sources of the causative agent of rabies are wild predators, dogs and cats, and in some countries of the world – bats. Given the nature of the reservoir of the pathogen, epizootics are distinguished as of the natural type when wild carnivores (fox, raccoon dog, arctic fox, wolf, corsac, jackal) spread the disease, and urban type when stray dogs and cats are the source of the virus and the spread of the disease.

The method of infection and the mechanism of pathogen transmission. Infection of animals and humans occurs through direct contact with sources of the causative agent of rabies as a result of a bite or saliva of damaged skin or mucous membranes. Infection with rabies is possible through the mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, in alimentary and aerogenic, as well as transmissible ways.

The intensity of the manifestation of the epizootic process. With a high abundance of foxes, corsacs, raccoon dogs, wolves, jackals, arctic foxes, the disease spreads rapidly, with an average abundance rabies manifests itself only in rare cases. With a low population density of wild carnivorous epizootics remisses.

The course and clinical manifestation of rabies symptoms. The incubation period varies from several days to 1 year and averages 3-6 weeks. Its duration depends on the type, age, resistance of the animal, the amount of virus that has penetrated and its virulence, the location and the nature of the wound. The closer the wound to the brain, the faster the rabies clinic appears.

The disease is more acute. The clinical picture is similar in animals of all species, but better studied in dogs. Rabies in them usually manifests itself in two forms: furious and sullen. The recurrent and abortive course of the disease is recorded.

In furious rabies, three stages are distinguished: prodromal, excitative, and paralytic.

The prodromal period (stage of signs and symptoms) lasts from 12 hours to 3 days. This period begins with a slight change in behavior. Sick animals become apathetic, boring, avoid people, try to hide in a dark place, reluctantly go to the call of the owner. In other cases, the dog becomes affectionate to the owner and acquaintances, trying to lick his hands and face. Then anxiety and excitability gradually increase. The animal often lays down and jumps up, barks for no reason, there is an increased reflex excitability (to light, noise, rustling, touch, etc.), shortness of breath appears, the pupils are dilated. Sometimes a severe itching occurs at the site of the bite, the animal licks, combs, and nibbles it. With the progression of the disease, a perverted appetite often appears. The dog eats inedible objects (stones, glass, wood, earth, its own feces, etc.). During this period, paresis of the muscles of the pharynx develops. Difficult swallowing (it seems that the dog choked on something), salivation, hoarse and abrupt barking, hesitant gait, sometimes squint are noted.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The second – excitative period – lasts 3-4 days and is characterized by an increase in the symptoms described above. Aggressiveness builds up, a dog for no reason can bite another animal or person, even its owner, gnaws on iron, sticks, earth, often breaking teeth, and sometimes the lower jaw. In sick dogs, the desire to break the chain and run away intensifies, a rabid dog runs tens of kilometers per day, bites and infects other dogs and people along the way. It is characteristic that the dog runs silently to animals and people and bites them. Attacks of violence lasting several hours are replaced by periods of oppression. Paralysis of individual muscle groups gradually develops. The change in the dog’s voice is especially noticeable due to paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. Lai sounds hoarse, resembling a howl. This symptom has diagnostic value. The lower jaw is completely paralyzed, it sags. The oral cavity is open all the time, the tongue half falls out, there is abundant salivation. At the same time, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and muscles of the tongue occurs, as a result of which the animals cannot eat food. Strabismus appears.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The third – paralytic period – lasts 1-4 days. In addition to paralysis of the lower jaw, the hind limbs, the muscles of the tail, bladder and rectum, then the muscles of the trunk and forelimbs are paralyzed. The body temperature in the stage of excitation rises to 40-41 °C, and in the paralytic – decreases below normal. In the blood, polymorphic nuclear leukocytosis is noted, the number of leukocytes is reduced, the sugar content in urine is increased to 3%. The total duration of the disease is 8-10 days, but often death can occur in 3-4 days.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With a sullen (paralytic) form of rabies (most often observed when dogs are infected from foxes), excitation is slight or not expressed at all. The animal is not aggressive, the appetite is preserved, there may be difficulty swallowing, similar to the condition when animals choke on the bone. There is paralysis of the pharynx, lower jaw, hind limbs. An unstable gait can be observed in a sick dog, sometimes with an atypical form the animal eats completely inedible objects, salivation develops. The disease lasts 2-4 days.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

The recurrent form of rabies is characterized by complete recovery, which after two to three weeks is again replaced by all the symptoms of the disease.

The abortive form of rabies ends with the recovery of the animal in the second stage of the disease. This form of rabies is very rare and is still being studied by many researchers.

The atypical form of rabies has no stage of excitation. Depletion and muscle atrophy are noted. There have been reported cases of rabies, which occurred only in cases of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis: vomiting, semi-liquid feces containing blood-mucous masses.

Clinical presentation of canine rabies

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With rabies in cats, the clinical signs are basically the same as in dogs, the disease proceeds mainly in a furious form. Often, an infected animal tries to hide in a quiet, dark place. Sick cats are very aggressive towards humans and dogs. They inflict deep damage by sticking their claws, trying to bite in the face. Their voice is changing. In the stage of excitement, cats tend, like dogs, to run away from home. In the future, paralysis of the pharynx and limbs develops. Death occurs 2-5 days after the manifestation of clinical signs. With paralytic rabies, aggressiveness is weak.

Clinical presentation of rabid cats

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

With cattle rabies, the incubation period is more than 2 months, usually from 15 to 24 days. In some cases, it may take 1-3 years from the moment of the bite until the first signs of the disease appear. Rabies occurs mainly in two forms: furious and sullen.

With a furious form, the disease begins with excitement. The animal often lies down, jumps up, lashes its tail, stomps, rushes to the wall, strikes with horns. Aggressiveness is especially pronounced towards dogs and cats. Salivation, sweating, frequent urges to urination and defecation, rut are noted. After 2-3 days, paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx (inability to swallow), lower jaw (salivation), hind and forelimbs develop. Death occurs on the 3rd-6th day of illness,.

With a sullen form, signs of excitement are weak or absent. Depression is observed, cows go off feed. Cows ablactate and stop to ruminate. Then the paralysis of the larynx, pharynx, lower jaw (hoarse mooing, salivation, inability to swallow), and then the hind and front limbs appears. Death occurs on the 2nd-4th day.

Rabid cattle

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

In sheep and goats, the symptoms are the same as in cattle: aggressiveness, especially to dogs, increased sexual arousal. Paralysis quickly develops, and on the 3-5th day the animals die. With a paralytic form of rabies, excitement and aggressiveness are not noted.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  овец и коз

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Rabies in horses is initially manifested by anxiety, shyness, excitability. Itching is often possible at the site of the bite. Aggression to animals, and sometimes to people. During the period of excitement, horses rush to the wall, break their heads, gnaw at feeding troughs, doors, sometimes, on the contrary, fall into a state of depression, resting their head against the wall. Cramps in the muscles of the lips, cheeks, neck, and chest are noted. With the further progress of the disease, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and then the limbs develop. The animal dies on the 3-4th day of illness. But sometimes a fatal outcome occurs within 1 day. With a paralytic form of rabies, the stage of excitation does not occur.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  horses

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Rabies in pigs is often acute and furious. Pigs rush about in pens, go off feed, gnaw feeders, partitions, the bite site. Strong salivation. Aggression is shown to other animals and people. Sows attack their own piglets. Soon paralysis develops, and 1-2 days after their appearance, the animals die. The duration of the disease is not more than 6 days.

In the paralytic form of rabies (rarely recorded), depression, going off feed and water, slight salivation, constipation, rapidly progressing paralysis are noted. Animals die 5 … 6 days after the manifestation of signs of the disease.

Rabid pigs

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Camels rabies manifests itself in a sullen or furious form, and death occurs 4-5 days after the clinical manifestation. The incubation period for rabies of camels is up to 1.5 months.

Clinical presentation of rabies of  camels

(Illustrative photo from open resourses)

Diagnostics. The most accurate diagnostic results are achieved by examining several parts of the brain at once: the brainstem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex and horn of Ammon. The diagnosis of rabies based on the clinical picture is not possible, as the symptoms are similar to some other diseases. Diagnostics using histological changes (detection of Negri bodies), as well as DPR (diffuse precipitation reaction) is not currently used due to low sensitivity. Moreover, histological examination is not recommended for use by the OIE diagnostic and vaccine guidelines. IHCM (immunohistochemical method) is usually not used in diagnostics due to the complexity and duration of the reaction. In the diagnosis of rabies in tissue samples, RV proteins or fragments of its genome are detected. For this, RIF, virus isolation in animals (on mice) and in cell cultures, ELISA, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and many others are used..

Specific prevention of agricultural, domestic animals. Vaccination of animals is one of the main effective ways to prevent rabies. For vaccination of farm and domestic animals, it is recommended to use the animal rabies inactivated vaccine from the strain “VRC-RZ2” of fixed rabies virus (developer – RIBSP). The vaccine is intended for prophylactic and compulsory immunization against rabies in cattle and small cattle, horses, camels, pigs, dogs and cats.

ANIMAL RABIES INACTIVATED VACCINE (DEVELOPER – RIBSP)

During prophylactic immunization of farm animals, the vaccine is administered subcutaneously in the middle third of the neck or croup (for pigs, intramuscularly behind the ear). Preventive immunization of dogs, cats and other carnivores is carried out subcutaneously or intramuscularly from two months of age. Preventive immunization is carried out once with subsequent revaccination in a year. For animals previously vaccinated against rabies, the vaccine is administered subcutaneously once every two years.

Preventive immunization of animals is carried out in the doses indicated in the table.

Animal species Age Dose, ml
Horses and camels Over 3 years old

from 3 months to 3 years

10,0

5,0

Cattle Over 2 years old

from 3 months to 2 years

8,0

5,0

Sheep and goats Over 1 year old

from 3 months to 1 year

4,0

2,0

Pigs Over 1 year old

from 4 months to 1 year

5,0

3,0

Big dogs (over 10 kg) Over 1 year old

2-12 months.

1,0

0,5

Little dogs (up to 10 kg) Over 1 year old

6-12 months.

2-6 months.

0,5

0,3

0,2

Cats Over 1 year old

2-12 months.

0,5

0,3

The vaccine promotes the formation of active immunity against rabies, starting from 10-15 days after the use of the preparation for at least 12 months after a single immunization.

The vaccine can cause a local reaction in some animals at the injection site, which manifests itself in the form of a small swelling, which spontaneously resolves within 7-10 days.

The meat and milk from vaccinated farm animals is used without restrictions, regardless of the timing of the vaccine.

In case of emergency immunization, the vaccine is used no later than 3 days after being bitten by animals suspected of being infected with rabies. For severe bites – no later than 24 hours. The vaccine is administered in 1.5-fold prophylactic doses with revaccination in a prophylactic dose 7-10 days after the first vaccination.

 

Rabies treatment. There are no effective therapies. Ill animals are immediately isolated and slaughtered, as keeping animals longer can cause the infection of humans.

General antiepizootic measures. Anti-epizootic measures in the Republic of Kazakhstan are carried out in accordance with the veterinary rules “Sanitary-epidemiological and veterinary-sanitary rules for the prevention and control of infectious diseases common to animals and humans (rabies)”.

Conclusion

The control of rabies in animals consists of timely veterinary and sanitary measures, explanatory work on compliance with livestock rules and the procedure for the performance of their duties provided for by the veterinary legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

 

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” of SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28.

E-mail: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call: Bulatov Yerbol Akenovich, head of the laboratory “Technology of cultivation of microorganisms”, candidate of veterinary sciences, tel. +7 (701) -449-55-52

Concerning the acquisition of the vaccine: Ershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Head of the Quality Department, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

AUGUST FORUM OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

From August 15 to 16, 2019, the Republican Forum of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan “Global Values and Quality of Kazakhstan’s Education and Science” was held in Nur-Sultan.

On the first day of the forum, prominent scientists of the Republic of Kazakhstan participated in the meeting, and Fatima Nadyrovna Zhakypova, Vice Minister of Education and Science, also participated.

The Vice Minister’s report noted that in 2019, at the meetings of the High Scientific and Technical Commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan, questions regarding the priority areas for the development of science at the current stage, as well as further financing of science and the draft scientific and technical program of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2020-2022 were discussed. According to the decisions of HSTC, the volume of financing of grant projects and programs for 2020-2022 will increase far-forth.

Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev instructed the government to take urgent measures to address problems in the education system. The head of state instructed the Ministry of Education and Science to review the cost of educational grants and the standards for universities.

Kassym-Zhomart Tokaev raised the problem of the workload of teachers. He applied to the authorities and demanded not to burden teachers with extra work.

Children in Kazakhstan need to instill an “environmentally friendly” consciousness, cultivate a culture of household cleanliness and hygiene in every possible way, and teach them to understand the crucial importance of protecting nature, Tokayev said.

Kasym-Zhomart Tokaev noted that “Suicides in children and adolescents are a tragedy for all of us. We all need to seriously think about why children take such a step. The formation of solid attitudes is, in fact, a basic criterion for the quality of the educational process”.

The President instructed to ensure a thoughtful transition to a 12-year model as part of the implementation of the new State program for the development of education and science until 2025.

The President noted that “Teachers’ salaries remain one of the lowest, accounting for 65% of the average salary in the economy.” He instructed the government to double teachers’ salaries over four years, and also consider increasing the period of leave for all teachers to 56 days, a supplement for a master’s degree, and so on.

The President instructed the Ministry of Education and Science to develop and launch special programs to overcome the academic gap of children from low-income families or from schools working in difficult social conditions and showing poor results.

At the end of his report, the President presented state awards to teachers: the Order “Qurmet” and the medals “Eren enbegi ushin”, “Shapagat”, as well as letters of thanks from the President of Kazakhstan and the lapel badges “Ybyray Altynsarin” and “Honorary Worker of Education”.

Then, the Minister of Education and Science of Kazakhstan, Askhat Aymagambetov, made a report.

Askhat Aymagambetov announced the return of the primer book to the schools of the republic until 2021. A primer, written and published by Akhmet Baitursynov in 1912 in Orenburg, will return to schools. Also, the head of the ministry instructed to reduce the number of paid contests. According to the minister, the transition to the Latin alphabet will be carried out gradually in accordance with the schedule.

In 2019, the Ministry will implement the “Easy Portfolio” project. Parents have been given a choice: pupils can leave paper textbooks at school, and use electronic books at home.

The Minister of Education and Science in his report drew the attention of the participants of the August conference to the fact that the current rules for organizing school meals have corruption risks, so they will be changed.

To protect the rights of children, the ministry plans to create non-state adoption agencies, whose functions will include training of potential adoptive parents.

In Kazakhstan, the system of certification of teachers will be changed. According to the head of the ministry, more than 120 thousand teachers have managed to achieve higher wages through certification.

The professional growth of teachers and the management staff of pre-school and secondary education organizations will be determined through certification through passing the national qualification test. It will be fully automated.

The Minister of Education and Science announced the introduction of a five-day work week for school teachers.

The head of the ministry stated the need to improve the status of college teachers. A new certification system for college teachers will be introduced with an additional charge for the qualification category through the testing system.

According to the minister’s reports, a unified national testing in the future will be available in electronic format.

In addition, the minister said that the grants will go with the student on the basis of a voucher. With this voucher, he will be able to pay exclusively for his studies at the university. In addition, the student will be given the right to transfer to another university with his grant on a co-payment basis. Also, universities are given the right to choose students.

The size of the state educational grant has not increased since 2012. Therefore, a phased increase in the size of the state grant is necessary. This will allow universities to significantly increase the salaries of teachers, workers and improve infrastructure.

In order to improve the quality of teacher education, the ministry will pilotly introduce a national qualified test by graduates of pedagogical specialties on a voluntary basis. From 2021, this procedure will become mandatory.

The Minister of Education and Science of Kazakhstan congratulated teachers on the upcoming new school year.

Translated from Russian

AMAZING JOURNEY TO TANGBALY

Leader of the Nation N.A. Nazarbayev in his message to the people “Growth in the welfare of Kazakhstanis: improving incomes and quality of life”  marked 2019 the Year of Youth in the country.

On the initiative of the chairman of the primary party organization “Gvardiysk” of the party “Nur Otan” Kassenov Marhabat Melisbekovich, with the support of the trade union committee of the institute and the Council of young scientists, as well as in the framework of “Zhastar zhyly”, as well as articles of the Head of state “Rukhani zhangyru (Spiritual modernization)” and “Uly dalanyn 7 qyry (7 facets of the Great Steppe)”, in order to patriotically educate the youth of the Research Institute of Biosafety Problems, to involve them in the socio-cultural environment, the event “Oz taryhyngdy tanyp bіl (Know your history)” was carried out. During the event, an excursion was organized to the State Historical, Cultural and Natural Reserve-Museum “Tangbaly”, located in the Zhambyl district of Almaty region.

Petroglyphs minted and engraved on stones in the Tangbaly tract near the village of Karabastau, bordering the plain, which is a desert and semi-desert zone in the west of the Zhambyl region, are now becoming a source of tourism and are offered to the attention of foreign tourists as a rich heritage of our people and the pride of our country.

In 2005, at UNESCO Headquarters, UNESCO Director-General Konchiro Matsura handed the director of the reserve museum a certificate on inclusion of the Kazakhstan nomination “Rock paintings with the archaeological landscape “Tangbaly”” in the UNESCO World Heritage List, thereby noting the high attention to the importance and significance of this monument. On the territory of the tract “Tangbaly” there are more than a hundred monuments – settlements, burial grounds, ancient rock art, rock paintings and places of worship (places of sacrifice) of different times – the Bronze Age, starting from the middle of the XIV – XIII centuries BCE until the XIX-XX centuries. Tangbaly is an archaeological complex showing the history of the ancient and current peoples of our country.

According to archaeologists, many cave paintings in Tangbaly can be called the unique cave art of Central Asia in the Bronze Age. Also, historical sites confirm that one of the branches of the ancient Silk Road was located here.

The trip was a very useful event held to revive the interest of young people in their native land and its history. Young scientists expressed their opinion about the museum, that it aroused their special interest and desire to learn the secrets of their native land and that they received a great impression from the trip.

PERSONNEL OF RIBSP DISCUSSED THE LETTER OF THE HEAD OF STATE KASYM-JOMART TOKAYEV TO THE PEOPLE OF KAZAKHSTAN

September 4, 2019, collective of the Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems have discussed the Letter of the Head of State Kassym-Zhomart Tokayev to the people of Kazakhstan.

Chairman of the primary party organization “Nur Otan”, candidate of veterinary science Kassenov M.M. noted that the Letter of the President of the country to the people of Kazakhstan is an important event for every resident of the republic. Everyone finds in it the main direction for himself. The Letter to the people sets out a vision for the further development of the country and society, outlines the most important strategic tasks aimed at improving the quality of life of Kazakhstanis.

As noted in the discussion, 2020 was declared the “Year of the Volunteer”, which will allow “to expand the participation of citizens, especially youth, students and students in volunteer activities, to instill in them the skills of an active life position”.

In conclusion, the RIBSP  personnel supported the new initiatives and tasks that the Head of State outlined in his Letter and will create all the conditions for their successful implementation.

RIBSP CELEBRATES ITS ANNUAL ANNIVERSARY

August 7 is one of the most important significant dates for RIBSP, since exactly 61 years ago, by a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of August 7, 1958 and order of the Minister of Agriculture of the USSR V. Matskevich No. 253 of September 18, 1958 on the basis of two laboratories – The Scientific Testing Station of ARIPP and the Scientific Research Veterinary Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR established the Agricultural Research Institute (ACRI) of the Ministry of Agriculture of the USSR.

Like every special date, the meeting of the RIBSP employees began with a solemn speech and congratulations of RIBSP Director General Zakarya Kunsulu Daltonovna. Sincere wishes of great scientific achievements and family happiness were warmly received by the whole team!

 

Also made their congratulations the heads of laboratories Mambetaliyev M.A., Kutumbetov L.B., Koshemetov Zh.K., Yespembetov B.A., chief scientific secretary Abeuov Kh.B., chairman of the Primary Party Organization “NurOtan”  Kassenov M.M. and chairman of the Council of Young Scientists E. Burashev

 

 

 

 In celebration of the Institute’s Day, sporting events were held – football competitions FASTER, HIGHER, STRONGER! It was under this motto that the participants played and proved their primacy.

As a result, the following teams won prizes: the third place was Zhailau, the second place was Bayterek and the first place was Birlik team. There were also nominations among players: “The best forward” – Kassenov O.T., “The best player” – Tulendibaev A.B. and “The Best Defender” – Isimov A. Sincere wishes and positive emotions, this is how one of the most anticipated events of the institute went! Good, luck and great achievements to all!

LUMPY SKIN DISEASE

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28. Email: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call Kutumbetov Lespek Bekbolatovich, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Associate Professor, tel. +7 (701) -283-38-07

For consultation, call Orynbayev Mukhit Barmakovich, candidate of veterinary sciences, professor, tel. +7 (701) -345-51-77

Regarding the acquisition of the vaccine, Yershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Deputy Director General for Production Service, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83

Illustrative photo: from open sources

 

Lumpy skin disease (nodular dermatitis, nodular exanthema, infectious nodular dermatitis) is a viral infectious disease in big cattle, accompanied by fever, edema of the subcutaneous connective tissue and organs, the formation of skin nodes, eye and mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts damage. Mortality with  in lumpy skin disease does not exceed 10%,  however, financial damage is great, it is manifested by a decrease in growth and milk yield, as well as the inability to use cow skins. The disease is common in areas with a warm climate. A man does not suffer from lumpy skin disease.

Reasons

Lumpy skin disease in cattle is caused by a group of pathogens that, by antigenic properties, is similar to sheep pox virus. Contagium is carried by blood-sucking flying insects, herons, and also excreted with saliva, sperm, milk, exfoliated particles of the skin of a sick animal.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Epizootology

5–100% of cattle become infected with cattle lumpy skin disease. During therapeutic and disinfection measures against cattle lumpy skin disease it is possible to save 99% of the animals. Recovered ruminants develop stable immunity. However, in farms affected by lumpy skin disease, the presence of antibodies to the pathogen is determined with the annual introduction of a diagnostic allergen. Young and high-breed animals are most susceptible to the disease. Where there are many flying bloodsucking arthropods, outbreaks of lumpy skin disease occur more often. The virus can be transmitted by birds.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Symptoms

There are acute, atypical and symptomless types of the disease.

Acute form

The preliminary period lasts 3-30 days. The development of lumpy skin disease and its characteristic signs are as follows:

  • Initially, the temperature of cows rises — 40 ° C.
  • Cows lose appetite.
  • Lachrymation appears.
  • Mucous fluid flows from the nose.
  • 48 hours after the onset of hyperthermia, dense oval numerous nodules with a diameter of up to 7 cm and a height of 5 mm are formed all over the body. In some cases, neoplasms are combined.
  • Swelling of the surrounding hypodermal fiber occurs.
  • A few hours pass, at the edges the exfoliation of the epidermis begins, in the center – tissue necrosis.
  • After 1-3 weeks, a section of the dead texture disappears.
  • The cavity is filled with granulations. New skin remains unpigmented, overgrown with hair.
  • With a complicated form of dermatitis, ulcerations form.
  • Mastitis develops. Milk acquires a thick consistency and pinkish color. The milking process is long, characterized by soreness. When heated, milk quickly acquires a gel-like consistency.
  • Lymph nodes enlarge, detected by palpation.
  • The complicated course of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
  • nodules cover the entire body;
  • mucous membranes suppurate, ulcerate;
  • erosion covers the eyelids, appear on the cornea, the cow goes blind;
  • thick saliva oozes from the mouth;
  • nasal discharge of the mucous consistency is fetid;
  • with the spread of edema and ulcers in the respiratory canals, the animal dies from suffocation.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Upon recovery, swelling subsides, nodules are reduced, hair falls out, the skin cracks, peels off with rags, slowly updating. Secondary infection of the affected areas is not excluded. Lumpy skin disease is complicated by bronchopneumonia, arthritis, impaired reproductive functions.

Atypical form

Registered with small calves. It is characterized by variable diarrhea and hyperthermia. Symptoms of dermatitis are absent.

Asymptomatic form

Cows do not get sick, but become virus carriers.

Diagnostics

The cause of lumpy skin disease is identified on the basis of the following data:

  • Epizootological situation.
  • Clinical symptoms.
  • Pathological changes. They are determined at autopsy and the detection of specific signs.
  • Laboratory research. Histological sections are examined, and changes characteristic of the disease are found. They put a bioassay.

Bioassay

The material is taken from the inflamed skin tubercle, grown on tissue culture (LT, LK, etc.). The resulting substance is administered to test animals. The diagnosis is considered confirmed if a result is obtained that matches the data in the table.

Annual blanket vaccination is the only way to prevent lumpy skin disease in cattle.

It is quite possible to cure animals affected by the virus of lumpy skin disease if effective drugs are used and disinfection measures are followed. As a prophylaxis of the disease, vaccination is recommended. The vaccine helps not only protect animals from the virus, but also resists its spread. It is necessary to vaccinate from lumpy skin disease the entire livestock of cattle, regardless of gender and age. The duration of immunity in this case reaches 12 months.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Prophylaxis

To prevent cattle lumpy skin disease, it is recommended to use the cattle lumpy skin disease vaccine from the Neethling-RIBSP strain. The vaccine is administered once at a dose of 2 cm3 subcutaneously in the middle third of the neck, regardless of the age of the animal.

In disadvantaged areas, the vaccine is used annually. Vaccination of livestock is carried out in the spring. Calves obtained from vaccinated animals are given a vaccine starting at 6 months of age. The calves obtained from unvaccinated animals, the vaccine is administered at any age.

The vaccine promotes the formation of active immunity against cattle ND, starting from 21 days after using the drug for at least 12 months after a single immunization. Pregnant cows are also immunized once.

The vaccine can cause a local reaction in some animals at the injection site, resulting in a slight swelling. In some animals, a short-term increase in body temperature to 39.5 ° C is possible within 1-2 days with a satisfactory general condition and preservation of appetite.

The meat of vaccinated animals, in the absence of any reactions, is used without restrictions. If there is a reaction at the injection site, the meat is allowed to be used no earlier than 14 days later. In other cases, you should be guided by the current rules of veterinary inspection of slaughtered animals and veterinary-sanitary examination of meat and meat products.

If ND has been diagnosed in the region, all individuals are subject to vaccination, regardless of previous immunizations. Cattle with signs of ND are isolated from staff and healthy animals.

Control measures

Due to the danger of lumpy skin disease, its control is carried out by the local veterinary service with the assistance of regional authorities. Organizational measures and restrictive actions are applied.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Organizational measures

In points threatened by infection with lumpy skin disease, the following activities are carried out:

  • Stock identification. All animals are equipped with tags.
  • Monitoring the regular processing of livestock farms with repellents.
  • Conducting blanket immunization with the cattle lumpy skin disease vaccine from the Neethling-RIBSP strain.
  • All movements of feed and livestock in threatened areas are carried out with the knowledge of the head of the regional veterinary service. If during a clinical examination there are signs of lumpy skin disease, it is imperative that the seller and the buyer conduct quarantine measures during the breeding sale.
  • Ensure round-the-clock operation of veterinary laboratories and state funding for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease.
  • Organize repellent treatment of animals during their movement.
  • Oblige livestock owners to assist veterinarians in conducting periodic screenings for viral dermatitis and treatments against it.
  • Bring the parameters of the keeping of animals in accordance with zoohygienic requirements, avoid dampness, in which blood-sucking insects actively develop.
  • Regularly disinfect and delouse rooms.

Illustrative photo: from open sources

Restrictive measures

A livestock farm or locality where lumpy skin disease has been diagnosed is subject to quarantine, during which the following restrictions apply:

  • Clinically sick animals in previously successful territories, it is recommended to slaughter internal organs, as well as skins dispose.
  • Milk is allowed for removal after boiling or sterilization at 132 ° C.
  • Quarantine is removed one month after the last sick animal has recovered, however, livestock export is prohibited throughout the year, with the exception of sending to slaughter, which is allowed during the period of termination of the activity of insects.
  • The export of unauthorized livestock products from disadvantaged areas is detected and suppressed in accordance with applicable law.

Conclusion

Control of cattle lumpy skin disease is to conduct veterinary and zoohygienic measures, explanatory work among cattle breeders, as well as the conscientiousness of animal owners.

For consultation, call the RSE “Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems” SC MES RK by phone (726-36) 7-22-28. Email: ribsp@biosafety.kz

For consultation, call Kutumbetov Lespek Bekbolatovich, Doctor of Veterinary Sciences, Associate Professor, tel. +7 (701) -283-38-07

For consultation, call Orynbayev Mukhit Barmakovich, candidate of veterinary sciences, professor, tel. +7 (701) -345-51-77

Regarding the acquisition of the vaccine, Yershebulov Zakir Dzhaparovich, Deputy Director General for Production Service, tel. +7 (778) -881-46-83